IHP news 470: NCDs

By on May 18, 2018

International Journal of Health Services – Multi-Sectoral Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Prevention Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis

S Sanni et al; http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0020731418774203

“Conceptual frameworks for health policy analysis guide investigations into interactions between institutions, interests, and ideas to identify how to improve policy decisions and outcomes. This review assessed constructs from current frameworks and theories of health policy analysis to (1) develop a preliminary synthesis of findings from selected frameworks and theories; (2) analyze relationships between elements of those frameworks and theories to construct an overarching framework for health policy analysis; and then, (3) apply that overarching framework to analyze tobacco control policies in Togo and in South Africa. This Comprehensive Framework for Multi-Sectoral Approach to Health Policy Analysis has 4 main constructs: context, content, stakeholders, and strategies. When applied to analyze tobacco control policy processes in Togo and in South Africa, it identified a shared goal in both countries to have a policy content that is compliant with the provisions of international tobacco treaties and differences in strategic interactions between institutions (e.g., tobacco industry, government structures) and in the political context of tobacco control policy process. These findings highlight the need for context-specific political mapping identifying the interests of all stakeholders and strategies for interaction between health and other sectors when planning policy formulation or implementation.”

WHO Bulletin – Early assessment of China’s 2015 tobacco tax increase

Mark Goodchild et al; http://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/BLT.17.205989.pdf?ua=1

In 2015, the Chinese government raised tobacco excise tax for the first time since 2009. Changing from previous practice, the State Tobacco Monopoly Administration raised its cigarette prices at the same time. We assessed the early impact of the 2015 tax increase on cigarette prices, sales volumes, tax revenue generation and the potential effect on prevalence of smoking in China. Between 2014 and 2016, the retail price of cigarettes increased on average by 11%, with the cheapest category of cigarette brands increasing by 20%. The average proportion of tax in the price of cigarettes rose from 51.7% to 55.7%. Annual cigarette sales decreased by 7.8%, from 127 to 117 billion packs. The increase in cigarette prices could be associated with a 0.2% to 0.6% decrease in the proportion of adults smoking, representing between 2.2 and 6.5 million fewer smokers. Tax revenues from cigarettes increased by 14%, from 740 to 842 billion Chinese yuan between 2014 and 2016, which is equivalent to an extra 15 billion United States dollars in tax revenues for the government. China’s 2015 tobacco tax increase provides a demonstration that tobacco taxation could provide measurable benefits to both public health and finance. The experience also highlights the potential for tobacco taxation to contribute to China’s broader development targets, including the sustainable development goals and Healthy China 2030. Looking forward, this link to development can be facilitated through multisectoral research and dialogue to develop consistent cross-sectoral objectives for tobacco tax policy design and implementation.”

UN News – Obese people more likely to smoke, says new gene research: WHO

https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/05/1009962

New research indicates that people who are genetically prone to being overweight have a higher risk of taking up smoking – and they are likely to smoke more than average — UN scientists said on Wednesday.” Based on new research in BMJ.

McDonald’s new menu: less transparency, more tax havens

https://www.epsu.org/article/mcdonald-s-new-menu-less-transparency-more-tax-havens

Tax avoidance is still on the menu at McDonald’s. “…a new report on McDonald’s tax practices, focusing on the company’s use of tax avoidance mechanisms in Europe and low-tax and secrecy jurisdictions around the world. It shows how in the midst of a tax probe and the day after the Brexit, McDonald’s changed its tax structure. “ Check out the new report, Unhappier Meal

Lancet Psychiatry – Association of disrupted circadian rhythmicity with mood disorders, subjective wellbeing, and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study of 91 105 participants from the UK Biobank

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(18)30139-1/fulltext

Disruption of the body’s internal clock is linked with mood disorders and adverse wellbeing.

So if you are occasionally wondering where these sometimes gloomy, sometimes ‘The time is now for the revolution!’ IHP intros come from, just blame my body’s internal clock!

Quartz – Africa’s desperate youth are getting high on opioids and anything they can get their hands on

Quartz;

“…With expensive illicit drugs like cocaine and heroin out of reach for many unemployed young people, they’re turning to a range of cheap options—and concoctions—to get high. The spreading addiction among Africa youth to cheap synthetic opioids brought in from China and India has had much press recently…. …. Combining opioids with alcohol is a popular choice….”

“… More than availability and the creativity of youthful addicts, much of the drug abuse culture is fueled by the inability of most African economies to grow quickly and get big enough to cater to a bulging youth population. … … The drug combinations may differ from country to country, but the symptoms are the same: a lack of opportunities for the so-called youth bulge. African governments are struggling to find a cure to both the the cause and the epidemic. Few have adequately staffed and equipped public rehabilitation centers or a coordinated public health response, never mind how to create jobs for Africa’s youth.”

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